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{\Large {\bf Homework 3}} \hfill MATH 301/601 \\
{Due Thursday, February 22, 2024} \\[-2mm]
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\medskip
{\bf Instructions.} \textit{Read the appropriate homework guide (\href{http://qc.edu/~nvlamis/301S24/Homework_Guide_301.pdf}{Homework Guide for 301} or \href{http://qc.edu/~nvlamis/301S24/Homework_Guide_601.pdf}{Homework Guide for 601}) to make sure you understand how to successfully complete the assignment.
All claims must be sufficiently justified. }
\medskip
\begin{Exercise}
Complete Exercise \#1 from \href{http://abstract.ups.edu/aata/groups-exercises.html}{Section~3.5} in the course textbook
\end{Exercise}
\bigskip
\begin{Def}
An \emph{equivalence relation} on a set \( S \) is a binary relation \( \sim \) that is:
\begin{enumerate}[(i)]
\item \emph{reflexive}, that is, \( a \sim a \) for all \( a \in S \);
\item \emph{symmetric}, that is, \( a \sim b \) implies \( b \sim a \) for all \( a, b \in S \); and
\item \emph{transitive}, that is, \( a \sim b \) and \( b \sim c \) implies \( a \sim c \) for all \( a, b, c \in S \).
\end{enumerate}
\end{Def}
\medskip
\begin{Exercise}
Let \( n \in \bn \).
Prove that equivalence modulo \( n \) is an equivalence relation on \( \mathbb Z \).
\end{Exercise}
\medskip
\begin{ExGraded}
Let \( n \in \bn \).
Prove that given any \( m \in \bz \) there exists a unique element \( a \in \{0, 1, 2, \ldots, n-1 \} \) such that \( m \equiv a \pmod n \).
(Hint: Use the division algorithm.)
\end{ExGraded}
\medskip
\begin{Exercise}
Let \( n \in \bn \), and let \( a, b \in \bz \).
Prove that if \( a \equiv b \pmod n \), then \[ \gcd(a,n) = \gcd(b,n) .\]
\end{Exercise}
\medskip
\begin{ExGraded}
Let \( n \in \mathbb N \) with \( n > 1 \), and let \( a \in \mathbb Z \).
\begin{enumerate}[(a)]
\item
Prove that if \( \gcd(a,n) = 1 \) and \( b,c \in \bz \) such that \( ab \equiv ac \pmod n \), then \( b \equiv c \pmod n \).
\item
Give an example of integers \( n, a, b, c \) such that \( a \not\equiv 0 \pmod n \), \( b \not\equiv c \pmod n \), and \( ab\equiv ac \pmod n \).
\end{enumerate}
\end{ExGraded}
\medskip
\begin{ExChallenge}
Let \( m,n \in \bn \) be relatively prime, and let \( a, b \in \bz \).
Prove that there exists \( x \in \bz \) such that
\begin{align*}
x &\equiv a \pmod m \\
x &\equiv b \pmod n .
\end{align*}
(Hint: Start by writing 1 as a linear combination of \( m \) and \( n \).)
\end{ExChallenge}
\bigskip\bigskip
\begin{center}
(Turn page over.)
\end{center}
\newpage
\medskip
\begin{Exercise}
Let \( n \in \mathbb N \).
\begin{enumerate}[(a)]
\item
Prove that \( 10^n \equiv 1 \pmod 9 \). (There are numerous ways to see this. One way is to use induction.)
\item (Divisibility by 9)
Define \( h\co \mathbb N \to \mathbb Z \) by \[ h(n) = \sum_{j=0}^{k} a_j, \]
where \[ n = \sum_{j=0}^{k} (a_j \cdot 10^j). \]
In words, \( h(n) \) is the sum of the digits of \( n \) when written in base 10.
For example, if \( n = 27301 \), then \( h(n) = 1+0+3+7+2 = 13 \).
Prove the following statement:
Let \( n \in \mathbb N \).
Then, \( 9 \mid n \) if and only if \( 9 \mid h(n) \).
(Hint: You will have to use part (a).)
\end{enumerate}
\end{Exercise}
\medskip
\begin{ExGraded}
Let \( n \in \mathbb N \).
\begin{enumerate}[(a)]
\item
Prove that \( 10^n \equiv (-1)^n \pmod {11} \).
(Hint: use induction.)
\item (Divisibility by 11)
Define \( f\co \mathbb N \to \mathbb Z \) by \[ f(n) = \sum_{j=0}^{k} (-1)^j a_j, \]
where \[ n = \sum_{j=0}^{k} (a_j \cdot 10^j). \]
In words, \( f(n) \) is the alternating sum of the digits of \( n \) when written in base 10.
For example, if \( n = 27301 \), then \( f(n) = 1-0+3-7+2 = -1 \).
Prove the following statement: Let \( n \in \mathbb N \).
Then, \( 11 \mid n \) if and only if \( 11 \mid f(n) \).
(Hint: You will have to use part (a).)
\end{enumerate}
\end{ExGraded}
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